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1A Electromagnetic oscillations and waves:

  • Free and forced electromagnetic oscillations
  • Sources, appearance, properties and uses of electromagnetic waves
  • Am and fm modulation
  • Analogue-to-digital and digital-to-analogue conversion
  • Channels of communication


  • Making comparisons
  • Use of logarithms in equations
  • Developing an argument for scientific and non-scientific use
  • Realisation of the historical development of technology
12.2А Electromagnetic oscillations and waves Free and forced electromagnetic oscillations. – know and describe forced and free electromagnetic oscillations;
Sources, properties and use of electromagnetic waves. – describe sources of electromagnetic oscillations;
Amplitude and frequency modulation. – understand the term modulation and be able to distinguish between amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM); – know and describe advantages of AM and FM transmissions;
Analogue-to-digital and digital-to-analogue conversion. Communication channels. – recall the advantages of the transmission of data in digital form, compared to the transmission of data in analogue form; – understand that the digital transmission of a signal involves analogue-to-digital conversion (ADC) on transmission and digital-to-analogue conversion (DAC) on reception; – understand that information may be carried by a number of different channels: wire-pairs, coaxial cables, radio and microwave links and optic fibres; – describe the use and role of satellites in communication; – know  the relative merits of both geostationary and polar orbiting satellites; – know the frequencies and wavelengths used in different channels of communication;
Electromagnetic waves. – understand the conditions for the appearance and properties of electromagnetic waves; – know the types and characteristics of electromagnetic waves in accordance with the scale of electromagnetic waves; – give examples of the use of electromagnetic waves; – use knowledge of electromagnetic waves to explain the phenomenon, regularities and relations in unfamiliar situations.


Zhakupov Nursultan

Physics teacher in Nazarbayev Intellectual school, Pavlodar.
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