Physics 3 term

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Zhakupov Nursultan
Physics 11 Grade - NIS, Physics A-Level, Ученику, Физика
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  • 15 урока
  • 0 тесты
  • 10 week продолжительность

Recommended prior knowledge

G9 description of simple oscillations; graphical representation of oscillations; energy in an oscillator; idea of forced oscillations and resonance

Context
All of this material has been touched upon qualitatively in grade 9 so much of the terminology should be familiar if not secure. The simple harmonic oscillator is one of the most important physical systems because it turns up in so many varied contexts from atomic and molecular vibrations to the destruction of buildings driven to oscillate by seismic vibrations of the ground. It is another simple mathematical model which only applies exactly if the force law is Fµ – x. The work on damping and resonance also has a very large number and range of applications in engineering and science.

Compulsory laboratory works:

·        Investigation  of mathematical pendulum oscillations

·        Investigation of spring pendulum oscillations

·        Investigation of damped oscillations

Language objectives of physics in this unit

A sample language objective with related academic language for learners is provided below.

Subject learning objective Language learning objective Subject-specific vocabulary & terminology Useful set(s) of phrases for dialogue/writing
Learners can:

 

describe simple examples of free oscillations

 

 

Learners can:

 

answer questions about a variety of simple oscillating systems set up around the classroom and feed back to the class about their observations

 

oscillation, oscillator

amplitude, phase relationship/difference, displacement, velocity, acceleration, time period, frequency, force, position, decay time

simple harmonic motion, forced oscillation, frequency carrier oscillations, resonance, damping

 

 

Is the time period of oscillations independent of amplitude?

What is the phase relationship between coordinate and velocity and/or acceleration?

What are the moments of oscillations at which velocity and acceleration are maximum?

What factors affect the time period of oscillations / frequency?

How does the force vary depending on coordinate and time during the oscillating motion?

How rapidly does the amplitude of oscillations die away and what affects the decay time?

To create other language objectives, and for additional guidance on language teaching objectives that apply to the teaching and learning of academic language, see ‘Introduction to language objectives’ above.
Outline
Whilst the target is to get a full mathematical description of simple harmonic oscillators it is advisable to start empirically by exploring and discussing a variety of simple oscillators. This will provide opportunities for learners to improve their understanding of key terms as well as improve knowledge of the mechanics of oscillation. The equations for x, v and a against time can be obtained by inspection from the graphical representations of the oscillations or from the equation of motion. Once these have been derived it is important to allow time for problem-solving and familiarisation.

The formulas for the time period of a simple pendulum and a mass-spring pendulum should either be derived theoretically or empirically produced. Once learners are comfortable with the mathematical description of simple harmonic oscillations, they can then derive equations for the energy of the oscillators as a function of either time or coordinate. This leads into work on damping mechanisms which has many important practical applications.

The unit finishes by considering the influence of impressed frequency on the amplitude of oscillator’s own oscillations, and considering the graph of oscillatory amplitude against driving frequency ought to be derived from experiment. Once again there are many applications of resonance, some advantageous and some disadvantageous – this is a good opportunity for independent learner research.

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Zhakupov Nursultan
Physics teacher in Nazarbayev Intellectual school, Pavlodar.

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